**PSYC 354 Week 1-8 Complete Homework Solution**

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**PSYC 354 Homework 1 Introduction to Statistics**

When submitting this file, be sure the filename includes your full name, course and section.

Be sure you have reviewed this module/week’s lesson and presentations before proceeding to the

homework exercises. Number all responses. Review the “Homework Instructions: General”

document for an example of how homework assignments must look.

All Questions

Part I: Concepts

These questions are based on the Nolan and Heinzen reading and end-of-chapter questions.

Fill in the blank with the appropriate word or words.

1. A statistic that uses sample data to make general estimates about the larger population is statistic.

2. A statistic that summarizes a group of numbers is a(n) statistic.

3. A(n) is a set of observations drawn from the larger group of interest.

4. The large group about which you want to know something is called .

5. A five-star rating system for movies is a variable at the level of measurement.

6. A person’s religious preference is a variable at the level of measurement.

7. A(n) variable is a variable that meets the criteria for an interval and ratio variable.

8. Discrete values that the independent variable can take on are called the of the independent variable.

9. A variable that is manipulated to determine its effects on another variable is a(n)

variable.

10. A(n) variable makes it impossible to determine whether the independent variable is the cause of changes in the dependent variable.

11. is the process of drawing conclusions about whether or not a particular relation between variables is supported by the data.

12. The hallmark of a(n) is the random assignment of participants to conditions

so that cause and effect can be discovered.

13. When each participant has the same chance of being assigned to the various levels of the manipulation, they are said to be to conditions.

14. Each participant experiences all levels of the independent variable in a(n) design.

15. Participants experience only one level of the independent variable in a(n) design.

**Answer the following questions:**

**Question 1a-1b**

A health psychologists decides to study the effects of living region (rural, suburban, urban) on the number of extra-curricular activities of residents.

1-a) What would the independent variable be in this study?

1-b) What would the dependent variable be in this study?

**Question 2 (a-d)**

Hsee and Tang (2007) reported the results of a study in which 195 college students completed a happiness

scale (from 1 to 7) one day in class. On this scale, 1 corresponded to very unhappy and 7 to very happy. On average, the students rated their happiness as 6.18. Identify each of the following for this study.

**Questions 3-6**

Answer these general SPSS questions.

3) In which window do you enter data in SPSS?

4) Which window displays the results of your analysis in SPSS?

5) Which SPSS main menu would you use to choose a particular statistical test?

6) If you wanted to custom define a variable in SPSS, which window would you open?

**Question 7**

Suppose you have administered a personality inventory to 12 people and have recorded their score on

each item in SPSS. The personality inventory has 8 items, so the SPSS file has 8 variables representing each item (item1, item2, etc.). You want to compute a total score for each participant that represents the

sum of items 1–8.

7a) Which main SPSS menu contains the option for computing a variable like this?

7b) According to the presentation and to Lesson 19 in Green and Salkind, what could you type into the “Numeric Expression” text box in order to have SPSS add items 1–8 together? (There is more than one way to do this.)

Submit Homework 1 by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 1. Remember to name file appropriately.

**PSYC 354 Homework 2 Frequency Tables and Graphs**

All Questions

Part I: Concepts

These questions are based on the Nolan and Heinzen reading and end-of-chapter questions.

Use the following table to answer Question 1. This table depicts the scores of 83 students on an exam worth 65 points.

1) Use the information in the table to determine the percentages for each interval. Depending on your rounding decisions, these may or may not add up to exactly 100% but should be very close.

Table: Grouped Frequency Table

Exam score Frequency

60–62 3

57–59 9

54–56 21

51–53 18

48–50 14

45–47 10

42–44 8

TOTAL 83

2) When constructing a histogram and labeling the x- and y-axes, the lowest number on each axis should ideally be ……

3) A frequency distribution that is bell-shaped, symmetrical, and unimodal is

4) A frequency distribution that has a tail trailing off to the right of the distribution is

5) A frequency distribution of ages of residents at a senior citizen home is clustered around 83 with a long tail to the left. This distribution is

6) When a variable cannot take on values above a certain level, this is known as a(n) effect.

7) A grouped frequency table has the following intervals: 30–44, 45–59, and 60–74. If converted into a histogram, what would the midpoints be?

8) Do the data below show a linear relation, non-linear relation, or no relation at all?

9) Do the data below show a linear relation, non-linear relation, or no relation at all?

Part I:

Question 10a- 10e

• Read the introduction and click on different “subway lines” to see how the interactive graph works.

10-a) In which of the four boroughs is the median household income highest?

10-b) Click on the “A” line. Does the line graph for Manhattan show high or low variability? What does this

level of variability tell us about the household income in this area of Manhattan?

10-c) Click on line 2. Which borough (not a street) shows the least variability in median household income?

10-d) On line 2, find the following two subway stops: Park Place (the first of the highest Manhattan stops) and E 180 St. (one of the lowest Bronx stops, located about halfway across the BRX section). What is the difference (calculate) between the median household incomes of the two areas?

10-e) Click on the “D” line. Which subway stop in Brooklyn seems to be an outlier?

Part II: SPSS Analysis

Green and Salkind, Lesson 20

• Open the “Lesson 20 Exercise File 1” document (found in the course’s Assignment Instructions folder) in order

to complete these exercises.

• Always use the Blackboard files instead of the files on the Green and Salkind website as some files have been modified for the purposes of this course.

• Reminder: For Exercise 1, be sure to paste in the SPSS output and write out the answers for A, B, and C beneath it.

Part III: SPSS Data Entry and Analysis

The steps will be the same in Part III as the ones you have been practicing in Part I of the assignment; the only difference is that you are now responsible for creating the data file as well. Remember to do the following:

• Name and define your variables under the “Variable View,” then return to the “Data View” to enter the data;

and

• Paste all SPSS output and graphs into your homework file at the appropriate place.

Part III: Questions 1a-1c

**PSYC 354 Homework 3 Central Tendency and Variability**

Questions 1–7

Questions 1-4

Fill in the highlighted blanks to answer/complete the statements.

The arithmetic average of a set of numbers is the mean.

2) What is an outlier?

3) Which widely-used measure describes the typical amount or distance a score deviates from the mean in any given distribution?

3. Standard Deviation (-2) – correction from professor

4) What is the mathematical relationship between variance and standard deviation?

Part I: Concepts

These questions are based on the Nolan and Heinzen reading and end-of-chapter questions.

Question 5

For the following terms, write the equivalent mathematical symbol (letter or letters) for the sample statistic.

Question 6a-6c

These are the winning percentages for 11 baseball players for each one’s best 4-year pitching performance:

6-c ) Compare the mean and median. Does the difference between them suggest that the data are skewed very much?

6-a) What is the mean of the scores? (Compute this using a calculator):

6-b) What is the median of these scores?

Explain.

Question 7

Recall the interactive graph from Homework 2 depicting household income and location in New

York City.

Based on this module/week’s reading, why do you think the author of this graph chose the

median household income instead of the mean household income to describe central tendency?

Part II: SPSS Analysis

Green and Salkind Course Text, Lesson 21: Exercises 1, 4, 7, and 8

• Questions 1 and 4

o Green and Salkind Text, Lesson 21

o Lesson 21 Exercise File 1 (located under course’s Assignment Instructions folder)

Part II:

Exercises 1a-1d and Exercise 4

Green and Salkind, Lesson 21, Exercises 1 and 4

Open “Lesson 21 Exercise File 1” in order to complete these exercises.

Part III: SPSS Data Entry and Analysis

The steps will be the same as the ones you have been practicing in Part I of the assignment; the only difference is that you are now responsible for creating the data file, as well. Remember to do the following:

a) Name and define your variables under the Variable View, then return to the Data View to enter the data; and

b) Paste all SPSS output and graphs into your homework file at the appropriate place.

Part III: Questions 1-4

The following data are taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics surveys from the years 2009–2013. They represent the average weekly pay for wage and salary earners measured at 4 different quarters each year and broken down by gender.

……………………………………………..

**PSYC 354 Homework 4**

**Sampling and Probability**

When submitting this file, be sure the filename includes your full name, course and section. Example: HW4_JohnDoe_354B01

Be sure you have reviewed this module/week’s lesson and presentations along with the practice

data analysis before proceeding to the homework exercises. Complete all analyses in SPSS, then copy and paste your output and graphs into your homework document file. Answer any written questions (such as the text-based questions or the APA Participants section) in the appropriate place within the same file.

Questions 1–15

Part I: Concepts

These questions are based on the Nolan and Heinzen reading and end-of-chapter questions.

Questions 1-10

Fill in the highlighted blanks to answer/complete the statements.

1) A(n) random sample occurs when everyone in the population has the same chance of being selected.

2) The ability to apply research findings to contexts or samples other than the one studied is called generalizability.

3) The duplication of the results of a research study in a different context or with a different sample is called replication.

4) Your own estimate of the likelihood that you will uphold your New Year’s resolution is known as a(n) personal probability.

5) Expected relative-frequency probability is computed as the number of successes divided by the number of trials.

6) The experimental group is the group receiving the intervention or treatment of interest.

7) A statement that 2 populations are different from one another is a(n) research hypothesis.

8) If you find that the groups you studied differed from each other more than would be expected by chance alone, you reject the null hypothesis.

9) When you reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is in fact true, you have made a(n) Type I error.

10) When you fail to reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is false, you have made a(n) Type II error.

Question 11

Researchers were interested in whether touch therapy improves the weight gain of preterm infants and

compared the weight gain over a 3-week period of infants receiving touch therapy to the weight gain of infants not receiving touch therapy.

11-a) What is the likely null hypothesis for this experiment?

Touch therapy does not improve the weight gain of preterm infants.

11-b) What is the likely research hypothesis for this experiment?

Touch therapy does improve the weight gain of preterm infants.

Question 12-15

Complete the Nolan and Heinzen end-of-chapter Exercises 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, and 5.29.

12) Exercises 5.26

71/489=0.1452

13) Exercises 5.27

8/266=0.0301

14) Exercises 5.28

a)

1.73%

b)

80%

c)

37.19%

15) Exercises 5.29

a)

0.627

b)

0.003

c)

0.042

Part II & Part III

There is no new SPSS material this module/week. No questions for Part II or III

.

Part IV: Cumulative

Data provided below for Questions 1 and 2.

Grade Part IV: Questions 1a-1b

The final grades for students in a freshman seminar are shown in the left-hand column. Enter the data into a new SPSS data file.

• Create the appropriate SPSS graph to show the distribution of students’ grades.

• Compute descriptive statistics for this data.

• Which measure of central tendency would you use to describe this data?

• Why?

99.00

93.00

89.00

86.00

82.00

79.00

78.00

76.00

75.00

75.00

73.00

72.00

69.00

65.00

63.00

55.00

50.00

1-a) Create the appropriate SPSS graph to show the distribution of students’ grades.

Page 3 of 6

Answer:

1-b) Compute descriptive statistics for this data.

Which measure of central tendency would you use to describe this data? Why?

Page 4 of 6

Answer:

Descriptives

Statistic

Std. Error

Mean

95% Confidence Interval for Lower Bound

Mean Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

Median

Variance

Grade Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range

Interquartile Range

Skewness

Kurtosis

75.24

3.097

68.67

81.80

75.32

75.00

163.066

12.770

50

99

49

17

-.146

.550

.037

1.063

Answer: Measure Of Central Tendency

Mean

Explanation/Justification:

You generally use the mean unless there are outliers or a small amount

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