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Selina

BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 – 100% Correct Answers

Selina

BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 – 100% Correct Answers

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BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 – 100% Correct Answers

 

  1. 1.            What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

 

  1. Make observations and ask a question
  2. Analyze  the data
  3. Develop a hypothesis
  4. Share the results with other scientists
  5. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis

 

a)    I>II > III > IV > V

b)    III > I > V > II > IV

c)    V> IV > III > II > I

d)    I> III > V >II > IV

e)    V > II > I > III > IV

 

2. You have formulated a hypothesis: “Apples contain more vitamin C than oranges.”

To test your hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 apples from trees that were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental conditions (temperature, rain, sunlight). This experiment was conducted twice. The control in the experiment is__________________________________.

a)    type of soil, temperature, amount of rain and sunlight in the orchard

b)    vitamin C levels

c)    oranges

d)    apples

e)    a large sample size and repeated experiment

 

***Use the following information to answer questions 3, 4,5 & 6 below***:

 

A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering cholesterol levels in a group of men between the ages of 50 and 70 years old. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results:  One group of 150 men took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (three men from this group dropped out of the study).  Another group of  150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study).

  1. 3.    Which of the following is the best hypothesis for this experiment?

 

a)    Will drug X lower cholesterol levels in men between the age of 50 and 70 years?

b)    Drug X will lower cholesterol levels in men.

c)    Since high cholesterol levels significantly increases several health risks for men, drug X is most likely beneficial.

d)    Men between the age of 50 and 70 years will have reduced cholesterol levels if they take drug X over a 3 week period.

e)    There is no significant difference in cholesterol levels between men that take drug X and those that don’t take it.

 

  1. 4.    Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?

 

a)    The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b)    The number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment

c)    The group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X

d)    The group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X

e)    The number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

 

5. Which of the following is a dependent variable in this experiment?

 

a)    The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b)    Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c)    The average age of the participants

d)    Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e)    Blood pressure

 

  1. 6.    Which of the following is anindependent variable in this experiment?

 

a)    The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b)    Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c)    The average age of the participants

d)    Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e)    Blood pressure

 

 

 

7. A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the cell cycle does it inhibit cell division?

a)    Metaphase

b)    S phase

c)    G1

d)    Cytokinesis

e)    Prophase

  1. A researcher planted seeds from four types of tomatoes (Roma, Cherry, Big Boy and Early Girl) in a greenhouse to determine which type of tomatoproduce the largest number of tomatoes per plant. The plants were grown for 70 days under the same temperature and light conditions. The average results for 20 plants of each type are shown below.   Choose the data set that demonstrates that Cherry tomatoes produce the largest number of tomatoes per plant.

a)    Roma: 20 tomatoes, Cherry: 18 tomatoes, Big Boy: 30 tomatoes, Early Girl: 10 tomatoes

b)    Roma: 1.8lbs, Cherry: 2.8lbs, Big Boy: 2.7lbs, Early Girl: 1.0 lbs

c)    Roma: 3 cm, Cherry: 1 cm, Big Boy: 10cm, Early Girl: 7 cm

d)    Roma: 2 cm, Cherry: 10 cm, Big Boy: 7 cm, Early Girl: 6 cm

e)    Roma: 23 tomatoes, Cherry: 28 tomatoes, Big Boy: 10 tomatoes, Early Girl: 27 tomatoes

 

  1. 9.    The majority of climate scientists believe that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.

 

a)    an enhancement of the greenhouse effect

b)    a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy

c)    a thinning of the ozone layer

d)    a  melting of the polar ice caps

e)    an increase in solar radiation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 10.  Based on the following phylogenetic tree, which of the following conclusions are *NOT* correct?  Each letter represents a hypothetical species.

 

 

a)    A and E share a common ancestor

b)    B is one of A’s ancestors

c)    E and D are more closely related to each other than to C

d)    C is more closely related to E than to B

e)    A and B are closely related

 

  1. 11.  You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your body?

 

a)    You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans.

b)    You get thirstier because of osmosis.

c)    Salt diffuses into your cells, water follows, your cells start to expand and you feel bloated.

d)    Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel much better.

e)    You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable membranes of your cells.

 

 

 

  1. 12.  You are spraying your garden with a pesticide and you accidentally swallow a small amount.  You read on the package that this pesticide inhibits ATP synthase. Should you be worried?

 

a)    ATP synthase is part of the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis; this pesticide will therefore not affect humans. So don’t worry!

b)    ATP synthase is an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle so all animals, humans included, will be affected. Call the doctor.

c)    ATP synthase found in the pesticide is a very toxic compound. Call the doctor.

d)    ATP synthase is involved in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Call the doctor.

e)    ATP synthase inhibitors will not affect humans, but there might be other toxic ingredients in the pesticide, so it is best to call the doctor to be on the safe side.

 

  1. 13.  In the following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?

12 H20 + 6 CO2     ->     1 glucose molecule + 6 O2

a)    Substrate

b)    Product

c)    Enzyme

d)    Activation factor

e)    Independent variable

 

 

 

 

  1. 14.  Which of the following is NOTa feature of DNA?

 

a)    Adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T)

b)    Complimentary strands are anti-parallel, running in opposite directions

c)    Complimentary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups

d)    Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds

e)    All of the above are features of DNA

 

  1. 15.  A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass the gene on to _______________________.

 

a)    all of his daughters

b)    half of his daughters

c)    all of his sons

d)    half of his sons

e)    all of his children

 

  1. 16.  A double-stranded DNA molecule that has 22% guanine will have __________.

 

a)    28% thymine

b)    22% cytosine

c)    44% adenine

d)    26% uracil

e)    both A and B are correct

 

  1. 17.  Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?

 

a)    A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates

b)    A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts the lower branches

c)    A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates

d)    A pigeon learns than when its keeper comes near it will be fed

e)    All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection

 

  1. 18.  The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this information?

 

a)    They share a recent common ancestor

b)    They are both adapted to environments low in light

c)    The ability to produce light is an ancient trait

d)    They are found in the same location

e)    All of the above

 

  1. 19.  You observe the following outside your window:  A grasshopper is munching away on a leaf when a hawk swoops down and eats the grasshopper. What is the grasshopper in this situation?

 

a)    Secondary consumer

b)    Prey

c)    Herbivore

d)    Predator

e)    Both b, c and d

 

  1. 20.  Which of the following statements is *NOT* true?

 

a)    The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis are haploid.

b)    Meiosis and meiosis both starts with one cell, but meiosis ends with four and mitosis with two.

c)    Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.

d)    Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.

e)    Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.

 

  1. 21.  In the scientific method, a hypothesis ____________.

 

a)    is a statement of fact

b)    is a proposed explanation based on observations

c)    is usually proven to be correct

d)    can only be tested once

e)    all of the above

 

  1. 22.  To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel.  Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?

 

a)    In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way.  In the control group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

b)    In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way.  In the experimental group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

c)    In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered.  In the control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.

d)    In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.

e)    Experimental and control group experiments are identical and run in parallel to get repeatable results.

 

  1. 23.  Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”?

 

a)    A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws

b)    A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large body of observations and experiments

c)    A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared unrelated

d)    A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural phenomena

e)    All of the above

 

  1. 24.  You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed germination. To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds are placed in light with warm temperatures and adequate moisture.  Another set of identical seeds are placed in the dark under the same set of conditions.  The control in the experiment is ___________.

 

a)    seeds in the dark

b)    seeds in the light

c)    warm temperature

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