Prostate cancer is one of the spreading noncutaneous malignancies among men in several countries over the world. This disease’s challenge is that it develops over the years with no symptoms that tell of its existence. Symptoms appear only when the prostate becomes large and starts to affect the urethra.
To treat the disease, doctors use different types of treatment depending on each situation. Among the treatments used bone-directed treatment, vaccine treatment, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, expectant management or what is called (watchful waiting), and Surgery which is also referred to as radical prostatectomy. The latter is the operation to remove the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it.
The defy urology specialists face is that even with the removal of the prostate gland, there’s always a high chance that the disease will appear again over years. A new study which is carried by a group of researchers from department of Urology of Vanderbilt University and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences has investigated features and predictors of recurrence of the disease after the radical prostatectomy.
Researchers tried to understand features and “characteristics associated with clinical and biochemical recurrence”. For that purpose researchers identified 893 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Among the group of patients studied “26.0% sustained BCR during a median follow up of 55.0 months” as stated in the study.
Researchers of the study which is published in an International Journal of Research in Urology said that they “were able to identify common clinicopathologic predictors of BCR including PSA, Gleason Score, and the presence of ECE and SVI.”
PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders.
Gleason Score or the Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer. Together with other parameters, it is incorporated into a strategy of prostate cancer staging which predicts prognosis and helps guide therapy.
Seminal Vesicle Invasion
Researchers of the current study stated that “By studying a larger population with a wide range of pathologic findings, albeit in a retrospective observational design, we were able to identify risk factors for recurrence, in an effort to develop a more effective risk-stratification scheme that could optimize benefit and minimize harms associated with early radiation therapy.”
The aim of the study as stated by researchers is that “the implementation of this risk-stratification tool will optimize the use of early radiation therapy in patients with high-risk features after radical prostatectomy.”
Causes of Prostate Cancer
Causes of prostate cancer are not known up till now, but scientists have some observations. As discussed here by NHS, prostate cancer causes include:
Age: Men who are over 50 years have high chances of prostate cancer.
Family History: Men who have a father or a brother with prostate cancer below 60 years old have high chance of developing the disease.
Ethnicity: There’s no evidence why but prostate cancer affects more men with African-Caribbean and African descent, and less men with Asian ethnicity.
Obesity: Some scientific studies make connection between obesity and the disease.
Diet: Scientists still search the relation between diet high in calcium and high risks of getting the prostate cancer.
Exercise: Men who exercise have low risks of developing prostate cancer.